The Abell Planetaries

- Deutsche Version?

Already in the year 1966 Geoge Abell arranged a list of 86 planetary nebulas, which he had discoverd on the photographic plates of the large 48" Schmidt Telescope on Mount Palomar. Two of these planetary nebulas are registered in the well-known NGC catalogue (Abell 50 = NGC 6742, Abell 75 = 7076) and two in the IC catalogue (Abell 37 = IC 972, Abell 81 = IC 1454). Four of these objects were not confirmed as PN (Abell 11, 32, 76, 85) and three were not taken up in the SEC (Abell 9, 17, 64). A very informative and complete compilation of all Abells which shows several observations with different apertures, you can find on the page of Stathis Kafalis. The Abell PN applies as notorious, but very interesting deep-sky-objects. That's because of the visuell challenge to detect as many as possible faint surface brightness Abell planetaries. Apart from patience and observation experience, most Abells need very good sky conditions. The use of [OIII] filter is also important than dark skies.
Inspired by Stathis Kafalis and Martin Schoenball, I would like to present my observations of these interesting PN. The observations were accomplished to the largest part with a 16" Dobson (others with apertures from 2" to 24") under good to very good sky conditions.

Object (DSS) Aperture, Magnification, Filter, Faintest Star - Description
Abell 1

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 51-129x, [OIII], fst 7m0
not visible

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
difficult star field; E faint star group; no sure observation
 

Abell 2

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 114x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
even without filter a very faint glow can be suspected but can not be hold; with [OIII] a small, round glow with well defined edges is visible; this disk can hold with direct vision with difficulties but can hold easy and steadily with averted vision; structureless

16", 300x, [OIII], fst 7m0
bright, circular, can hold PN with direct vision, faint star at the SW edge, fainter to the middle

27", 419x, o.F. + [OIII], fst 7m+
easy and direct vision Abell; already visible with 113x as a small patch of light; with 419x and without filter two faint stars at the SW edge of the PN; with [OIII] the ring structure is visible - the middle of the PN seems to be much darker; no CS visible
 

Abell 3

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
with 47x + [OIII] extremly faint stellar like glow, can not hold glow with averted vision; with 80x glow can be hold with averted vision as a round but small disk with sharp edges; without filter no star is visible at the position, also not the DS at the PN edge which is visible with larger aperture

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m0
only with [OIII], round disc, double star at the edge of the PN, sharply defined

16", 180x, [OIII], fst 7m+
faint PN, not visible without filter, near 13mag DS, W of the DS faint, round nebula, 1' diameter, structureless, can hold PN with averted vision
sketch
 

Abell 4

DSS 5' x 5'

5" Bino, 98x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
surprisingly easy with that aperture, round laminar spot, can hold it with averted vision

16", 257x, [OIII], fst 6m4
[OIII] shows no big improvement, small, round disc, cannot see the faint edge-on galaxy PGC 10427 (16,59 bmag), PGC 2816330 is visible as a faint glow

27", 419x, without filter, fst 7m+
bright PN even without filter; darker to its middle; round; PGC 2816330 (16,9bmag) 1,9' N easy with direct vision; 2:3 N-S elongated; fainter PGC 2201333 (17,1bmag) 45" NW; can hold it with averted vision; 3:1 NW-SO elongated
 

Abell 5

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 7m0
hardly noticable PN, after 30 minutes of observing I notice a faint hint of light, NE of the 14,1mag CS, not round, unsure observation

27", 113x-172x, UHC, [OIII], fst 6m5+
very difficult; with 113x and UHC a very faint disc popping out in and out of view around a 14mag star, can not hold it steadily; with higher magnification (172x) and [OIII] the round disc disappears and a faint spot get into the view SE of the star; but could not hold it again
 

Abell 6

DSS 10' x 10'

8", 80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
excellent transparency; 47x to little power to seperate any glow from the near star group and the 6,6mag star; with 80x a very faint round glow is popping in and out of view and can be hold for several seconds; glow is betwenn two 10mag stars, the star group and the bright 6,6mag star; a rough sketch confirm the exact position which was not known before; edges not hard defined; right size is visible

14", 80x, [OIII], fst 7m0
faint, perfectly circular disc, sharply defined, can not hold steadily with averted vision, sure observation, disturbing star group SE

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
6,6mag star 7' SW disturbs observation of the faint PN; PN itself is easy to detect, can hold glow with averted vision; exactly round with good defined edges
sketch

 

Abell 7

DSS 30' x 30'

8" 47x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
with 4mm AP and [OIII] a very faint round nebula can be seen with averted vision; the glow is disturbed by a group of 12mag stars which shines through the filter, but the glow continues to the north; no hard edge or structute within the glow

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 7m1
only with max. AP and [OIII], large, round PN, faint but can hold PN with averted vision, some faint structure, fainter to its middle, dark wedge from the west, PGC 16611 easy to detect, 10' NW of the PN, elongated 1:2

27", 113x,  [OIII], fst 6m5+
very large PN, with 12' diameter one of the biggest; faint but can hold PN easily with averted vision and max. AP; round with better defined edges at the E and W; E edge wider; W edge smaller and shifted to the N; N and S side open; PN is filled with nebula
 

Abell 8

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m2
only with [OIII], very faint, round disk, double star NW

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 7m+
without filter decentralized DS; no PN disk, no CS; with [OIII] faint round disk with good defined edges; can hold PN steadily; DS visible even trough filter
sketch

Abell 9

DSS 5' x 5'

14", 200x, [OIII], fst 7m5
also under perfect skies not observable, difficult star field with many dangerous faint stars, other observer and I only suspect faint glow, but could not hold or confirm the glow

16", 225-360x, [OIII], fst 6,5
now with [OIII] from Lumicon and Astronomic, again nothing to see

16", 51x-225x, fst 7m2
at the north edge of M 38, not visible without filter

27", 293x, [OIII], fst 7m+
only assumed; N of a faint DS, which is visible even through the filter; can not definitely hold the faint glow; unsure observation

 

Abell 10

DSS 5' x 5'

4", 63x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
not visible without filter, with [OIII] and 44x small spot of light, with 63x more easy and laminar, can hold PN with averted vision, 2' SW very faint star

8", 47x - 80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
starting with 47x nothing is visible without filter; with [OIII] a small laminar glow is visible; with 80x glow is visible just without filter; with filter glow is round and bright and is visible with direct vision between two 12mag stars

16", 360x, UHC, fst 7m2
bright, also without filter, round disc, [OIII] shows no big improvement, best view with high power and UHC, faint structure, can not hold the structure

27", 419x, fst 7m+
bright disk even with low power; visible easily with direct vision; round disk somewhat mottled but difficult to resolve; good defined edges; CS very difficult but certainly popping in and out of view; dark lane S of the CS, W of it brighter part
sketch
 

Abell 11

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x-225x, fst 6m5
reflection nebula?, not visible

27", 419x, without filter, fst 7m+
faint reflection nebula; with higher magnification a faint but sure observable glow; can hold the glow with averted vision; round without any detail; smaller than on the blue POSS plates
 

Abell 12

DSS 5' x 5'

4", 154x, [OIII], fst 7m+
with higher magnification the small round disk is easily visible and can seperate easily from the glow of mu Ori, no ring structure visible

4,5", 110x, [OIII], fst 6,4
amazingly easy with [OIII] and higher power, round, structureless

8", 160x, [OIII], moon (54%)
despite moon and bad seeing visible as direct vision object directly NW of mu Ori; round glow without ring structure

16", 230x, [OIII], fst 6m6
positioned in the direct neighbourhood of the 4mag star mu Ori, only with [OIII], round disc, difficult ring structure

16", 450x, [OIII], fst 6m8
min. UHC filter, better view with [OIII], sharply defined, SW part little brighter
sketch
 

Abell 13

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m8
NW-part of the PN popping out in and out of view, can not hold it with averted vision, unsure observation

20", 62x - 121x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
very difficult observation, nothing to see with lower magnification, with 121x and [OIII] a saw very faint nebula the position of the brighter NW part, without filter there are a few 15mag stars exactly at this position, with filter I'm not sure whether stars or nebula

27", 105x, [OIII], NPB, fst 7m+
PN only 13' S of 5,6mag bright 66 Ori; with narrow field eyepiece, [OIII], NPB filter and 6,6mm AP an extremly faint glow is suspected at the position of the brightest part at the W border of the PN; glow can not be hold with averted vision; uncertain observation despite 27" aperture and very good transparency
 

Abell 14

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 6m5
close star group of faint stars at the position of the PN, with [OIII] faint glow, difficult to decide, but I think the glow shows the stars and not the PN

27", 293x, NPB, fst 6m5+
with finder eyepiece a faint nebula can be seen as a result of faint 16mag stars near the PN; the star group can be resolve in individual stars with about 300x; can hold CS with averted vision; a faint nebula remains but is shifted to the E where the highest desity of the stars is; with [OIII] the stars and the glow disappears; no PN glow can be seen; with NPB filter the situation changes - a few star shines through the filter and the very faint glow move exactly on the PN position; because of that and the fact that no or only a few background stars are at this position a regard the observation as positiv but at the limit of perception
sketch
 

Abell 15

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 6m5
with [OIII] and higher power very faint nebula, can not hold it with averted vision, I'm sure that the glow shows the PN, no CS visible

27", 293x, fst 7m+
visible just without filter around faint CS; nearly no positive raction with UHC and [OIII] filter; best view without filter; ring structure with inside filling; exactly round with good defined edges
sketch
 

Abell 16

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m7
not visible

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 6,9
with [OIII] round disc, 3' glow with sharp edges, best AP around 4mm, difficult PN, pops in and out of view with averted vision
sketch
 

Abell 18

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
not visible

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m7
PN more simply than I expected, can hold the PN with averted vision, round disc without structure
 

Abell 19

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m4
remarkably CS without filter, 2-3 very faint stars around CS, with [OIII] a faint halo around CS, can hold halo with averted vision
 
Abell 20

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
with 47x + [OIII] a very faint glow is visible, lies between faint 14mag trapezium; with 80x glow is a little bit easier to observe and can be hold with averted vision; round without any structure

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m7
1' north of a small triangle, faint without filter, with [OIII] faint, round disc, structureless
 

Abell 21

DSS 20' x 20'

3", 14x, [OIII], fst 7m2
nebula also visible with 3" and [OIII] under perfect sky conditions, can hold PN with averted vision, round, structureless

4,5", 31x, [OIII], fst 6m4
SW-NE elongated disc with [OIII] and 14x, faint crescent shape with 31x

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 6m4
famous Medusanebula, large, crescent-shaped nebula, shape open to the W, brighter condensations SW and NE, many structures, difficult to hold, best view with AP 4mm and [OIII]-filter, faint view without filter
sketch
 

Abell 22

DSS 5' x 5'

20", 155x, [OIII], fst 6m5
faint 3:2 SW-NE elongated disk SW a 13 mag star, difficult to see, can hold it with averted vision, faint knots at the SW and NW end
sketch
 
Abell 23

DSS 5' x 5'

12", 94x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (Namibia)
no sure observation, difficult star field arround, negative observation

16", 100x-129x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
PN because low declination (-35 DEC) only 5 minutes of observing window, during short time not visible

17", 140x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (Namibia)
now with 17" apperture, now the faint star can also be seen through the filter, NO an faint, 1' round glow, can hold it with averted vision
 

Abell 24

DSS 10' x 10'

8", 47x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
at best a very faint glow suspected; can not hold the glow sure enough, thats why negative observation

20", 66x, [OIII], fst 6m5
very faint round disk, hardly noticable only with max. AP, not sharply defined, structureless
 

Abell 25

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m5
very faint PN, SE part popping out in and out of view, can not hold PN with averted vision

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
with max. EP PN looks like a round, filled glow without shell structure; only visible with [OIII] and averted vision; with 4mm EP a little bit fainter but with both shells; SE shell a little bit easier, between shells PN seems to be filled; [OIII] better than UHC
sketch

Abell 26

DSS 5' x 5'

12", 150x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (Namibia)
small and round, difficult, also with averted vision, no structure

16", 100x-129x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
PN because low declination (-33 DEC) only a few minutes of observing window, during short time not visible
 

Abell 27

DSS 5' x 5'

12", 63x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (Namibia)
no exact map to search PN (only Uranometria), at the exaxt position a very faint glow, can not hold it, the reinforcement shows, that I was at the right position

16", 100x-129x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
PN because low declination (-32 DEC) only a few minutes of observing window, during short time only a very faint hint of light, could not hold it, uncertain observation
 

Abell 28

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 6m5
not visible

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
more simply than expacted; round, large glow at the exactly PN position; can not hold glow, but it plobs in and out of view always at the same place; movement of telescope helps; edges are diffus; no other detail
 

Abell 29

DSS 10' x 10'

16", 69x, [OIII], fst 6m8
very difficult PN, observation together with another observer, can not hold PN with averted vision, round without defined edges, only with max. AP and [OIII], observed disk is only the SW part of the ring structured PN
sketch
 
Abell 30

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 6m5
faint PN, can hold it with averted vision, best with max. AP, not sharply defined
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+, Seeing IV
with 4mm AP + [OIII] PN disk itself can hold steadily with averted vision; sharply defined; around CS brighter but small 15" Halo; only visible with filter; CS Halo without structure
 

Abell 31

DSS 30' x 30'

8", 31x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
large nebula with [OIII] filter along trapezoid of 10mag stars; bright, can hold it with direct vision; brightest part east of the eastern star, elongated 1:2 N-S; west following another fainter part; difficult to find the borders, because of very diffus edges; whole nebula approx 14' large

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 6m5
moderately bright PN with max. AP and [OIII], around 10mag star, some structures, brightest part W and SW of the star, diffus end, NE second part, smaller
sketch
 

Abell 33

DSS 10' x 10'

8", 31x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
with 31x (AP 6,5mm) faint glow directly NE of a 7mag star; looks like a ghost of the star, but the offset position and the missing at other stars makes it clear that the glow is the PN; still visible with averted vision with higher power (80x = AP 2,5mm); exactly round disc with 4' diameter and well defined edges; at the NW border a faint 12mag stars shines through the filter; another 12mag star is 2' N; structureless

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m4
also noticable without filter, with [OIII] and 129x a large, round glow, can hold it with direct vision, no structure within the glow, sharply defined
sketch
 

Abell 34

DSS 10' x 10'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 6m4
very faint round glow with max. AP, not sharply defined, can not detect the ring structure

16", 75x - 180x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
best with higher AP, at 75x 2:3 N-S elongated, W side better defined, no ring structure, without filter and with higher magnification faint galaxy PGC 3081651 at the W edge, very faint, can not hold it steadily
sketch
 

Abell 35

DSS 10' x 10'

8", 47x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] easy and direct vision glow around bright CZ; N and E two other faint stars at the edge of the PN; glow seems to be round with diffuse edges; no other detail visible

16", 51x-100x, [OIII], fst 6m4
faint, large PN around 9,5mag CS LW Hyd, visually much smaller than photographically, at the south edge brighter 1:2 E-W elongated part
sketch
 

Abell 36

DSS 10' x 10'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] a 1:2 N-S elongated glow could be seen; can hold glow steadily with averted vision; bright CZ; with 80x the S part looks a little bit brighter

16", 51x-100x, [OIII], fst 6m4
easy Abell PN, can hold it with direct vision, with max. AP 2:3 N-S elongated disk around 11,8mag CS, with AP 4mm southern part much brighter

16", 75x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
easy, can already see the PN without filter, 2:3 E-W elongated PN, disk is shifted to the S side, flatly N side, S of the CS faint dark hole, brightest part at the W side, very faint outer parts at the NW
sketch
 

Abell 37 - IC 972

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 114x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
visible with averted vision even without filter; very small; from 80x the glow started to be laminar; round with good defined edges; only small filter effect; with [OIII] the PN can be seen with direct vision; no CS or ring structure

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m4
small planetary, best with 129x (AP 3mm), can hold it with averted vision, structureless, no CS

20", 450x, UHC, fst 7m+
without filter bright, round glow with brighter edges; no CS; good reaction to [OIII], best view with UHC; ring breaks at the E edge; brightest part at the SE; ring seems to be open to the N; W edge is better defined; stellar spot (star) at the NW
sketch

 

Abell 38

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 7m5
extremly faint PN, the faint, round glow sits directly south on a 11mag star, difficult to estimate the size and structure, the two 14mag neighbour stars are visible trough the [OIII]
sketch
 
Abell 39

DSS 5' x 5'

4", 31x, [OIII], fst 6m2
extreme PN with 4" , PN is popping in and out of view at the right position with 3,5mm AP and [OIII], can not hold it with averted vision, no CS without filter, structureless round glow

16", 129x, [OIII]
large, round disc with [OIII], can hold PN with averted vision

20", 121x, [OIII], fst 6m3
faint glow without filter and max. AP, with 4mm AP round, bright disk, darker to its middle, CS without filter
sketch

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
faint glow with AP 6mm and 4mm even without filter; with [OIII] easy target; best view with 172x (AP 4mm); exactly round with good defined edges, edge visible as a thin frame around the direct vision glow of the PN, frame a little bit segmented, brightest segment in the E, following with a smaller segment in the NW and S; CS direct vision without filter, even visible trough the [OIII]; did not try the galaxy within the PN

 

Abell 40

DSS 5' x 5'

12", 150x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (Namibia)
can hold PN with averted vision, round and laminar, faint star in the neighbourhood (without filter)

16", [OIII], fst 6m4
not visible
 

Abell 41

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, UHC, fst 6m4
faint Abell despite bright POSS-images (blue and red), could not see the PN without filter, best view with 225x and UHC, small, round, not sharply defined, structureless, could hold PN with averted vision
sketch
 
Abell 42

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 7m5

extremly faint spot of light, only visible with AP 4mm, PN is popping in and out of view with averted vision, round, without any structure, faint stars near the PN on the E and W side could be detect through [OIII]
sketch

20", [OIII], fst 6m3
not visible
 

Abell 43

DSS 5' x 5'

20", 155x, [OIII], fst 6m3
with [OIII] and 155x round glow, can hold it with averted vision, some difficult structure, could not hold it, 3 stars within the PN without filter
sketch
 
Abell 44

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 6m5
best view with 225x + [OIII], can hold PN with averted vision, round glow without sharp edges, faint 12,5mag star at the SE edge
sketch
 
Abell 45

DSS 10' x 10'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 6m5
extreme PN, 3' NW of 12,5mag GSC 56983731 3' x 2' E-W elongated glow, can not hold it with averted vision, unsure observation

27", 113x, [OIII], NPB, H, fst 7m+
only suspected as a extremly faint glow when moving the telescope; no exact size or position observeable; not sure visible when telescope stands still; tried all filter, only suspected with [OIII]; no brighter regions or edges visible; no certain observation even under nearly perfect transparency
 

Abell 46

DSS 5' x 5'

20", 206x, [OIII], fst 6m6
faint glow around CS even without filter, with [OIII] and 206x the PN is round with diffus border, 1,5' large around CS, can hold PN with averted vision
 
Abell 47

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m2
extreme object, very hard to detect, popping in and out of view on the right position, round, diffus spot of light, can not hold it with averted vision

27", 293x, NPB, fst 7m+
region poor of stars without near; after a long observing session a very faint small glow pops in and out of view with NPB filter just a few times; could not hold the glow, no certain observation even under neraly perfect transparency
 

Abell 48

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m+
difficult PN, can not hold PN with averted vision, round with diffus edges

16", 150x, [OIII], fst 7m+
also under very good alpine skies difficult PN, can not hold steadily with averted vision, round, small, obersvation together with another observer
sketch
 

Abell 49

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 7m3
very faint PN, small spot of light without structure, can not hold it with averted vision
sketch

27", 293x, [OIII], fst 7m+
nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] easy to see with direct vision; round without structure; diffus edges; nice star field with lots of DS and star groups
 

Abell 50 - NGC 6742

DSS 5' x 5'

4", 55x, UHC, fst 6m5+
visible even without filter, with 55x small and round, best view with UHC, can hold PN easily with averted vision

16", 51x-450x, [OIII], fst 6m4
bright, also visible without filter, round, sharply defined, structureless

27", 586x, ohne Filter, fst 7m0+
bright even without filter and low magnification; filter doesn't help much; at the W edge a faint star is visible; round PN seems to be filled homogenous, but S part is a little darker; no CS
sketch
 

Abell 51

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nothing visible or suspected with and without filter

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m3
large , round disc, sharply defined, can hold PN with direct vision, no ring or other structure
sketch
 

Abell 52

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 6m7
extremly faint PN, can not hold it with averted vision, after intensiv observation with 225x and [OIII] the PN is popping in and out of view

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
not visible without filter; with [OIII] round disk with sharp edges; can hold disk with averted vision; NE part brighter
 

Abell 53

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 114x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
higher magnification needful for precisely seperation from a neighbor 13mag star; star (1,6' N) itself visible with averted vision trough filter; but absolute nothing visible from the PN

14", 200x, [OIII], fst 7m3
faint, round disc, can not hold it with averted vision, typical Abell

27", 293x, [OIII], fst 7m+
visible even without filter as a round glow; weak response with [OIII] filter, no response with H; with filter ring structure visible with sharp defined edges; PN visible with direct vision
sketch

Abell 54

DSS 5' x 5'

16", [OIII], fst 7m+ (21,50)
not visible

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 7m+
compact star group 1,2 NW (can be seen also with filter), PN not difficult, can hold it with averted vision, round with soft edges, 1' diameter, structureless
 

Abell 55

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
without filter extremly faint nebula suspected; with filter clearly visible, can hold plob steadily with averted vision; round with diffuse edges

16", 180x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (21,50)
easy Abell PN, very faint glow even without filter, with [OIII] PN can hold with direct vision, with AP of 2mm PN the PN is round with structureless disc
sketch
 

Abell 56

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (21,50)
extreme PN, together with another observer I see a large, extremly faint nebula, can not hold the exact position and size

27", 122x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
very difficult PN, with max. AP very faint, round 3' large disk, darker in the middle, brightest part 1,5 SW from 11,2mag GSC 4672006, similar fragment on the other side, faint star groups make the observation not sure, brighter on the red POSS plate
 

Abell 57

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 80x-114x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
very small for Abell PN (47x to small for verification); with filter a very faint glow pops in and out of view each for several seconds; can not hold glow steadily; seems to be brighter to its middle with diffus edges; very faint but clearly positive observation

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 6m8
round, can hold PN with averted vision, diffus, brighter to its middle, like a faint GC
sketch
 

Abell 58

DSS 5' x 5'

16", [OIII], fst 7m+ (21,50)
not visible

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
difficult but sure positive identification, 1' NW from a faint 13mag parallelogram, compact but with 172x small disk, with 0,5' smaller than on the POSS, brighter on the red POSS plate
 

Abell 59

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 6m7
very faint PN, disturbing 6m5 star 3' NE, can hold PN with averted vison for 2-3 seconds, best view with 225x, [OIII] and the star outside the field, I saw the PN as a round glow with little brighter central part?

27", 113x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
under averange transparency very hard object; only visible with max. AP (6,1mm) as a small glow at the position of the brightest part of the PN at the N edge; could not hold PN with averted vision; pops in and out of view only fpr seconds; not visible with 4mm AP; disturbing star NE

27", 113x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
under very good transparency sure to see; already visible with max. AP (113x) as a very faint glow with better defined N edge; best view with 4mm AP (172x); round glow with brighter N egde; can hold glow with averted vision; only visible through [OIII], NPB filter poorer choice but also visible
 

Abell 60

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m0
medium sized Abell PN, round, only with [OIII], can hold PN with averted vision, PN is mottled, fore ground stars?
 
Abell 61

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
with 4mm EP a very faint glow can be seen 5' N of a 11mag star chain; small but laminar glow can be hold with averted vision; an increase of the magnification to 80x brings out the position and size much better althrough the glow is a more difficult to see; glow is exactly round and around 4' diameter

16", 75x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
rich star field, best view with 75x (AP 5,3mm) and [OIII], easy to hold with averted vision, no sign without filter, circular with better defined W side
sketch

20", 62-155x, [OIII], fst 6m5
beautiful PN, not visible without filter, with [OIII] large, round planetary, can hold it with averted vision, perfectly circular, NW-edge a little brighter

27", 113x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
PN could be seen even without fiklter as a very faint glow; with [OIII] bright, exactly round with nebula inside the PN; NW a little bit brighter; good defined edges; with 586x and without filter CS can be seen
 

Abell 62

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 7m3
best view with 4mm AP, faint glow around star group, 2:3 E-W elongated, S is brighter and better defined, faint but can hold it with averted vision
 
Abell 63

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 180x, [OIII], fst 7m+ (21,50)
typical Abell PN, with [OIII] small, round disk, faint star on the W border of the PN which is visible through the [OIII]
sketch
 
Abell 64

DSS 5' x 5'

10", without filter, fst 7m1
faint, round mark, can hold it with averted vision, no reaction to filters

14", without filter, fst 7m1
bright, no elongation, faint star near the middle

16", 225x, without filter, fst 7m0
bright, 1:2 elongated; faint HII region near the middle; Glx not visible with filter

27", 488x, without filter, fst 7m+
Glx already visible with low power; higher power shows several HII regions within the Glx; brightest knot at the N tip; dobble system with a fainter companion to the S; further S at the S edge another stellar HII knot; fainter knots also at the W and E edge
sketch
 

Abell 65

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nice star field without filter; both adjacent 13mag stars visible with 80x; CZ not visible; with [OIII] and 47x a faint 1:2 SE-NW glow can be hold with averted vision without problems; glow is also visible with 80x; diffuse edges; nice and for 8" easy Abell PN

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m2
brighter PN, oval shaped
sketch
 

Abell 66

DSS 10' x 10'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 7m2
faint, only with max. AP and [OIII], large, round, structureless
sketch
 
Abell 67

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m2
only with [OIII], medium sized round disc, easy to hold with averted vision, structureless
 
Abell 68

DSS 5' x 5'

16", [OIII], fst 6m2
1 south of M 27, not visible

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m0
now successfully with better scaled star plot, with [OIII] small, faint, round, double star in the east
sketch

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] easy object; with 6,1mm AP (113x) visible with averted vision as round glow with diffus edges; with 4mm AP visible with direct vision!
 

Abell 69

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 7m2
extreme PN, very small, very faint, star chain in the east, hardly noticable, can hold PN with high power for seconds

27", 293x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
extremly difficult Abell; without filter near PN position 16mag star, can hold star with averted vision; with Astronomik [OIII] I could detect a very faint glow at the posion of the PN, could also be the star through the filter; Lumicon [OIII] shows less stars, but the glow stay at the detected post; exremly faint, could not hold the faint glow
 

Abell 70

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 80x-229x, fst 6m5+
with 80x and without filter a small and nearly stellar glow can be seen; up to 160x glow can be hold with averted vision as a small laminar glow without any detail (galaxy); best view with [OIII] and 114x; up to 229x glow can be hold with averted vision as a small structureless (no dark hole in the middle) disk with good defined edges

16", 360x, fst 7m0
with [OIII] faint ring structure, very faint without filter, elongated spot in the ring
sketch

20", fst 7m2
with [OIII] beautiful ring structure,  1:3 elongated galaxy easy to detect without filter

24", fst 7m0
galaxie easy to detect, elongated 1:3 - 1:4, easy ring structure with [OIII], no CS

27", 172x, fst 7m+
without filter PN looks bright, round with darker central region, can hold with direct vision, galaxy 1:3 elongated, fantastic object!
 

Abell 71

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 6m8
confound by a faint star group 10' north, accurate star plot very important

20", 155x, [OIII], fst 6m5
now successfully, PN hard to detect even with 20", faint, round disc between many faint stars of the Milky Way

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
rich star field; already visible through searchig eyepiece + [OIII] filter and max. AP as a large glow; best view with 4mm AP; slightly N-S elongated glow with better defined E edge; near central position a 14mag star is visible through the filter which is not the real CS
sketch
 

Abell 72

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nice triangle of stars at the position of the PN; with [OIII] and 47x a laminar glow can be seen with direct vision within the triangle; better view to see the exactly size and position with 80x; with that mag glow can be hold easily with averted vision as a 3:2 N-S elongated glow

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m3
PN faint also without filter, 8 mag star in the west, with [OIII] large, round, structureless
sketch

27", 244x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
PN could be seen even without filter; with 293x the galaxy PGC 65491 S of the PN could be seen as a small glow; with [OIII] the PN could be detected with direct vision as a bright, round glow with better defined E and W edges; bright CS is visible even through filter
 

Abell 73

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m0
very faint PN, only with [OIII] and AP 3mm, can hold it with averted vision

27", 244x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
moderate easy PN; visible as a faint glow with direct vision in searching eyepiece; best view with 2,8mm AP (244x) and [OIII]; in the first overview PN seems to be exactly round with sharp defined edges; deeper observing shows a darker middle; both cups E and W are only implied and not directly visible
sketch
 

Abell 74

DSS 30' x 30'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 7m2
very faint and large PN, only with [OIII] and max. AP (7mm), round, 3 stars + faint galaxy PGC 66471 (15 bmag) are superimposed on the large disc (without filter)
sketch

27", 113x, [OIII], fst 7m+
without filter a very faint glow can be suspected when moving the scope through the field (rich star field around PN can also be the reason for this); with [OIII] and 6,1mm AP (113x, 0,7 field) a very faint glow around the bright CS is visible; but no edge or exakt form is visible; galaxy north of the CS is visible as a stellar glow without filter; difficult PN!
 

Abell 75 - NGC 7076

DSS 5' x 5'

4", fst 6m5+
not visible

8", 160x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
with for 8" high magnification 3 14mag stars can be seen in a N-S line; southern star seems to be laminar; but laminar character can be a result of a not resolved 15mag star; with [OIII] all faint stars disappear and a faint glow remain; structureless glow can be hold with averted vision and has good defined edges

12", 167x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
quick and dirty observation; PN can be seen as a brighter, round spot of light, direct vision; hard eastern edge

16", 330x, [OIII], fst 7m0
faint, small, oval shaped PN, only with [OIII], a little bit brighter at the NE, dark wedge from the west, 2 stars are superimposed
sketch
 

Abell 76

DSS 5' x 5'

No PN - Ringgalaxy PGC 85185

14", 200x, fst 7m+
small, exactly round, without any structure, no reaction with filter, very similar to a PN

27", 586x, fst 7m+
bright, direct vision, roundhard edges, no ring structure, faint star within PN not visible
 

Abell 77

DSS 5' x 5'

No PN - HII region Sharpless 2-128

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m8
faint, round disc around the CS without filter, with [OIII] faint, round disc without structure

27", 293x, NPB, fst 6m5+
even without filter a faint round glow is visible around 14mag bright "CS" with direct vision; positive response with [OIII] and NPB; no response with H; best results with NPB; E-W elongated glow with diffus edges; N side a little bit brighter
sketch
 

Abell 78

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 114x, [OIII] fst 6m5+
13mag CS visible even trough [OIII] filter; a very faint halo pops in and out of view around CS; halo is not visible around neighborhood 13mag stars; difficult but positive observation

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 7m1
only with [OIII], large, round disc, somewhat mottled (Ring?), bright CS

16", 180x, [OIII], fst 6m+
brighter PN with [OIII], 1:2 E-W elongated, somewhat brighter at the N and NE, bright CS, no ring structure
sketch
 

Abell 79

DSS 5' x 5'

4", 44x-88x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
not visible

8", 114x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
faint 14mag star at the S edge visible without filter; with filter star disappear but a faint glow remains; glow can be hold with averted vision for several seconds; difficult but positive observation

16", 225x, [OIII], fst 7m1
bright, also visible without filter, 1:2 elongated disc with [OIII], faint star at the south edge

27", 419x, fst 7m+
even without filter visible as a faint glow; no good filter reaction; bacause of the rich and beautiful star field observation and sketch without filter; most easiest detail is a bend at the E side; W of it a very faint glow 3:2 is following to the W; red bend to the NE side is not visible; CS ist visible with averted vision and only without filter
sketch
 

Abell 80

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 51x, [OIII], fst 7m2
not visible

16", 100x, [OIII], fst 7m2
faint PN very hard to detect, only with AP 4mm and [OIII], medium sized, round disc, can not hold PN with averted vision
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
nothing without filter; with [OIII] PN easy visible as a faint, round glow; sharply defined edges; could hold glow easy with averted vision; structureless
 

Abell 81 - IC 1454

DSS 5' x 5'

4", 55x, UHC, fst 6m5+
visible even without filter, with 55x small and round, UHC filter with hardly improvements, best view without filter

8", 80x, fst 6m5+
not visible with 31x; with 80x visible just without filter; nearly no positive filter reaction; round glow with good defined edges but without drak center

16", 51x-450x, [OIII], fst 6m5
bright, also visible without filter, round, circular disc, sharply defined, faint double star at the NE

16", 250x, [OIII], fst 6m8
PN with faint ring structure, thick ring

27", 586x, fst 6m5+
bright object; asymmetrical and  structured ring; faint CS
sketch
 

Abell 82

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
without filter two faint star; with [OIII] a noticeable glow is visible; glow seems to be round with diffus edges; glow is just visible with direct vision and easy with averted vision

16", 150x, [OIII], fst 7m0
small planetary with structure, best view with AP 2,7mm (150x) and [OIII], a little bit brighter at the NW, 4 stars are superimposed on the disc
sketch
 

Abell 83

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m0
only with [OIII], can hold PN with averted vision, trapezoid of stars at the east

16", 180x, [OIII], fst 7m+
typical PN, not visible without filter, with [OIII] faint, round light 1,5' SW of a trapezoid of 15mag stars, 1' diameter, can hold PN with averted vision
sketch

27", 173x, [OIII] + NPB, fst 7m+
not visible without filter; nice star filed with many DS around PN position; with [OIII] or/and NPB a faint, 3:2 E-W elongated disk without structure is visible with averted vision
 

Abell 84

DSS 5' x 5'

8", 80x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] a very faint glow is visible directly W of a 11mag star which is visible even trough the filter, the glow can be hold with averted vision and shows no structure

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 6m8
very faint without filter, better view with [OIII], dark lane dividing PN from the north to the south, eastern part a little bit brighter, 11mag star at the eastern edge
sketch
 

Abell 85

DSS 45' x 45'

No PN - Supernova Remnant CTB 1

16", 110x, [OIII], fst 7m+
no sign of SNR, difficult star field with star chains

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], fst 7m+
brightest [OIII] part east of the 9,5mag "starting star" GSC 42853095, extremly difficult and rich star field with many star chains, best view with 172x (AP 4mm), nebula can only detect indirectly as a step in brightness, the GSC forms a 5'x3' N-S oval, which is seperated in an brighter and less brighter part, brighter in the east, another similar step can be found 7,5' S from the GSC star, otherwise no other part could be detect
 

Abell 86

DSS 5' x 5'

16", 129x, [OIII], fst 7m2
very hard to detect, only with [OIII] and AP 3mm, can not hold PN with averted vision, visible only 20% of the time
sketch

20", 128x, [OIII], fst 6m5+
E of an faint 14mag star group, PN itself is very faint, round, can not hold it with averted vision

27", 172x, [OIII], fst 7m0+
difficult Abell even with 27" aperture; with [OIII] a very faint, round glow can be seen; can not hold glow steadily with averted vison; position is ok; pops in and out of view always for a few seconds
 

DSS Bilder: Space Telescope Science Institute (California Institute of Technology, National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the Sloan Foundation, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, Eastman Kodak Corporation)

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