The Abell Planetaries

- Deutsche Version?

In the year 1955 and final 1966 Geoge Abell arranged a list of 86 Planetary Nebula (PNe), which he had discovered on the photographic plates of the 48" Schmidt Telescope (POSS I Red) on Mount Palomar.

- Two of these PNe are registered in NGC catalogue (Abell 50 = NGC 6742, Abell 75 = 7076) and two in the IC catalogue (Abell 37 = IC 972, Abell 81 = IC 1454).

- Two objects were plate faults on the photographic plates and doesn't exist (Abell 17 and Abell 32).
- Five objects were not confirmed as PN: Abell 11 (Galaxy), Abell 64 (Galaxy), Abell 76 (Galaxy), Abell 77 (HII region) and Abell 85 (SNR).
- Abell 9 was not taken up in
Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae and is classified as a "Possible PN".
- A new research shows, that Abell 35 is not a true PN but a Strmgren Sphere.

Object (DSS) Aperture, Magnification, Filter, Naked Eye Limiting Magnitude (NELM) - Notes
Abell 1

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 1 (PNG 119.4+06.5, PK 119+06.1)

16", 51-129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
not visible

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
difficult star field; east faint star group; no sure observation
 

Abell 2

DSS Blue 5' x 5''

PN: Abell 2 (PNG 122.1-04.9, PK 122-04.1)

8", 114x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
even without filter a very faint glow can be suspected but can not be hold steadily; with [OIII] a small, round glow with well defined edges becomes visible; difficult to hold steadily with direct vision, but easy visible with averted vision; structureless

16", 300x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
bright and circular; can hold PN with direct vision; faint star at the SW edge, middle somewhat fainter

27", 419x, no filter / [OIII], NELM 7m0+
easy and direct vision PN; already visible with 113x as a small patch of light (without filter); with 419x and without filter two faint stars to the SW; with [OIII] the ring structure is visible - the middle of the PN seems to be much darker; no central star visible
 

Abell 3

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 3 (PNG 131.5+02.6, PK 131+02.1, Sh 2-189)

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with 47x + [OIII] extremely faint stellar like glow; not steadily visible with averted vision; with 80x glow can be seen steadily with averted vision as a round, but small disk with sharp edges; without filter no star at or near the PN position

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
visible only with [OIII] filter; round, sharply defined disc; double star at the east edge of the PN

16", 180x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
faint and not visible without filter; near 13mag double star directly east of the faint, round nebula; 1' diameter without any structure; steadily visible with averted vision
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
bad transparency; nothing visible without filter; with 419x central star is popping in and out of view; with [OIII] a very faint glow is popping but can not be hold steadily with averted vision; round and structureless

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
nothing visible without filter; central star is steadily visible with averted vision; with [OIII] and 4mm EP (172x) a faint but steadily visible glow can be seen with averted vision; round and structureless; PN to small for 113x and to faint for 293x (to small EP)
 

Abell 4

DSS Blue 5' x 5

PN: Abell 4 (PNG 144.3-15.5, PK 144-15.1, PGC 10427)

4" Binocular Telescope, 55x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
without knowledge of the exact position a small glow is popping in and out of view with averted vision; can not be hold steadily; difficult but sure positive observation

5" Binocular Telescope, 98x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
surprisingly easy with that small aperture; round and laminar glow which is steadily visible with averted vision

16", 257x, without filter, NELM 6m0+
nice filter blink effect, even if the [OIII] and UHC filter shows no big improvement; using higher magnification, the PN is steadily visible with averted vision even without any filter as a small and round disc; faint edge-on galaxy PGC 10427 (16,59 bmag) not sure visible; in contrast PGC 2816330 around 2' north is steadily visible as a faint glow

16", 257x, without filter, NELM 7m0+
under very good transparency of a High Alpine location, the PN is visible with direct vision without any filter in the searching eyepiece (51x); higher magnifications shows a round disc with good defined edges

27", 419x, without filter, NELM 7m0+
bright PN even without filter; round and darker to its middle; PGC 2816330 (16,9bmag) 1,9' north easy visible with direct vision and 2:3 north-south elongated; fainter PGC 2201333 (17,1bmag) 45" NW is steadily visible with averted vision and shows a 3:1 NW-SO elongation

27", 586x, without filter, NELM 6m5+
with higher magnification and no filter SE and NW segments of the PN are better defined and the middle seems to be a little bit darker; no central star visible, even with the central star filter
sketch
 

Abell 5

DSS Red 7' x 7'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 5 (PNG 141.7-07.8, PK 141-07.1)

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
extremely difficult PN; after 30 minutes of observing I noticed a faint hint of light NE of the 14,1mag central star; somewhat elongated; unsure observation

27", 113x-172x, UHC, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
very difficult; with 113x and UHC a very faint disc is popping in and out of view around a central 14mag star; can not hold the glow steadily; with higher magnification (172x, 4mm EP) and [OIII] filter the round disc disappears and a faint laminar and somewhat elongated glow gets into the view directly SE of the star; not steadily visible and similar to the 16-inch observation an observation at the edge of visibility
 

Abell 6

DSS Blue 10' x 10
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 6 (PNG 136.1+04.9, PK 136+04.1)


8", 80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
excellent transparency; the magnification of 47x (4,2mm EP) don't work to separate the glow of the PN from a near star group at the east and the 6,6mag star SW; with 80x a very faint round glow is popping in and out of view but can be hold with averted vision for several seconds each; glow stands between two 10mag stars NW, the star group at the east and the bright 6,6mag star SW; a rough sketch confirms the exact position and the right size which was not known before; edges not hardly defined

14", 80x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
faint and perfectly circular disc with sharply defined edges; difficult but sure observation even when the PN is not steadily visible with averted vision; co-observer confirms observation and position of the glow; disturbing star group at the east

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
6,6mag star 7' SW disturbs observation of the faint PN; PN itself is easy to detect and steadily visible with averted vision; exactly round with good defined edges
sketch
 

Abell 7

DSS Blue 25' x 25'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 7 (PNG 215.5-30.8, PK 215-30.1)


4" Binocular Telescope, 23x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
without filter a small triangle of 11-12mag stars is visible inside a larger triangle of 8-9mag stars; but no hint of nebula visible; with [OIII] a diffuse and very faint glow is visible just north of the small triangle; the round 10' large glow seems to be smaller than the photographic size; nebula is popping in and out of view with averted vision; sure observation, no confusion with the stars of the small triangle which are visible through the filter

8" 47x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with 4mm EP and [OIII] a very faint round nebula can be seen with averted vision; the glow is disturbed by a group of 12mag stars which shines through the filter, but the glow continues to the north; no hard edge or structure visible within the glow

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 7m1
visible only with maximum EP and [OIII] filter; large and round PN; faint but can steadily visible with averted vision; some difficult to hold structures within the nebula; fainter to its middle and a dark wedge from the west; 1:2 elongated PGC 16611 easy to detect (10' NW of the PN)

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
very large PN; with 12' diameter one of the largest PN in the sky; faint but steadily visible with averted vision and maximum EP; round with better defined edges at the east and west; eastern edge somewhat wider; western edge smaller and shifted to the north; north and south side open; PN is filled with nebula
 

Abell 8

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 8 (PNG 167.0-00.9, PK 167-00.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
only visible with [OIII] filter; very faint, round disk; double star NW edge

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
without filter decentred double star; no PN disk and no central star visible; with [OIII] filter steadily visible round disk with good defined edges; double star visible even trough filter
sketch
 

Abell 9

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

Possible PN: Abell 9 (PK 172+00.1)


14", 200x, [OIII], NELM 7m5
even under perfect skies not visible; difficult star field with many dangerous faint stars north of Messier 38; other observer also only suspected glow but could not hold or confirm the observation - negative result

16", 225-360x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
now with [OIII] filters from Lumicon and Astronomic - again nothing to see from the PN

16", 51x-225x, NELM 7m2
at the north edge of Messier 38; not visible without filter

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
only suspected; north of a faint double star, which is visible even through the filter; can not hold the glow; unsure observation - negative result
 

Abell 10

DSS Blue 5' x 5

PN: Abell 10 (PNG 197.2-14.2, PK 197-14.1, K 1-7)

4", 63x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
not visible without filter; with [OIII] and 44x small spot of light; with 63x easier visible with laminar character; steadily visible with averted vision; a very faint star 2' SW

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
starting with 47x nothing is visible without filter; with [OIII] a small laminar glow becomes visible; with 80x the glow is visible even without filter; with [OIII] filter the round glow is visible with direct vision and stands between two 12mag stars

16", 360x, UHC, NELM 7m2
even without filter bright and round glow; [OIII] filter shows no big improvement; best view with higher power and UHC filter; faint but difficult to locate structure

27", 419x, NELM 7m0+
bright disc even with low power; direct vision object; round disk somewhat mottled but difficult to resolve; good defined edges; central star very difficult to see but popping in and out of view; special central star-filter confirms positive observation; dark lane directly south of the central star; western edge somewhat brighter and better defined
sketch
 

Abell 11

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

Galaxy: 2MASX J05372154+0815290

16", 129x-225x, NELM 6m5
galaxy not visible

27", 419x, without filter, NELM 7m+
faint galaxy; with 419x a faint but laminar glow is steadily visible with averted vision; round and structureless; smaller than on the blue POSS plates
 

Abell 12

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 12 (PNG 198.6-06.3, PK 198-06.1)

4", 154x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
with higher magnification the small round disc is easily visible and can easily separated from the bright glow of mu Ori; no ring structure visible

4,5", 110x, [OIII], NELM 6,4
amazingly easy with [OIII] filter and higher power; round and structureless appearance

8", 160x, [OIII], moon (54%)
despite moon and bad seeing PN is visible as a direct vision object directly NW of mu Ori; round glow without ring structure

16", 230x, [OIII], NELM 6m6
positioned in the direct neighbourhood of the 4mag star mu Ori; with [OIII] filter showy round disc; ring structure only suspected

16", 450x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
only visible with UHC or better [OIII] filter; sharply defined edges; SW ring segment somewhat better defined
sketch
 

Abell 13

DSS Red 7' x 7'

PN: Abell 13 (PNG 204.0-08.5, PK 204-08.1, YM 28)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
western part of the PN is popping in and out of view; not steadily visible; unsure and so negative observation

20", 62x - 121x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
very difficult object; nothing to see with lower magnification; with 121x and [OIII] filter a very faint glow is popping in and out of view at the position of the brighter west to NW part; without filter there are a few 15mag stars exactly at this position which can not be excluded to be the seen glow with filter - negative observation

27", 105x, [OIII], NPB, NELM 7m0+
PN only 13' south of 5,6mag bright 66 Ori; with narrow field eyepiece, [OIII] or/and NPB filter (6,6mm EP) an extremely faint glow is suspected at the position of the brightest part of the PN at the western border; glow is not steadily visible with averted vision; uncertain and so negative observation even with 27" aperture and very good transparency of a High Alpine place
 

Abell 14

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 14 (PNG 197.8-03.3, PK 197-03.1)

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
dense star group of faint 15-16mag stars at the position of the PN; with [OIII] a faint glow is popping in and out of view; difficult to decide whether the PN or the glow of the stars trough the filter - I classify the observation as negative

27", 293x, NPB, NELM 6m5+
with finder eyepiece a faint nebula can be seen as a result of a smear of faint 15-16mag stars near the PN; the star group can be resolved in individual stars with up to 300x; with this magnification, the central star is steadily visible with averted vision; a faint nebula remains but is shifted to the east, where the highest desity of the stars is; with [OIII] filter the stars and the glow disappears; the NPB filter change the situation and the view - a few star shines through the filter and the very faint glow move exactly on the PN position; because of that and the fact that no or only a few background stars are at this position I classify the observation as positive but at the limit of perception
sketch
 

Abell 15

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 15 (PNG 233.5-16.3, PK 233-16.1, ESO 490-1)

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
very faint nebula with [OIII] filter and higher power; not steadily visible with averted vision; central star not visible

27", 293x, NELM 7m0+
interestingly even visible without filter around faint central star; nearly no positive reaction with UHC and [OIII] filter - best view without filter; PN visible as an exactly round, sharply defined ring with internal filling
sketch
 

Abell 16

DSS Blue 7' x 7'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 16 (PNG 153.7+22.8, PK 153+22.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m7
not visible

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 6m9
PN only visible with [OIII] filter; faint, round and around 3' big glow with sharp defined edges; best EP around 4mm; PN pops in and out of view with averted vision; sure observation, even when not steadily visible
sketch

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
visible even without any filter as a very faint glow, without being able to define the exact position and size; 419x shows the faint central star with averted vision; UHC and [OIII] filter brings similar but poor positive reactions; with [OIII] filter, the edges of the PN are somewhat better defined; PN is steadily visible with averted vision as a round, sturctureless glow, with a better defined eastern side
 

Abell 17
plate fault
 
Abell 18

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 18 (PNG 216.0-00.2, PK 216-00.1)


8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
not visible

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m7
PN observation easier than I expected; not steadily visible with averted vision but repeatedly popping in and out of view for seconds; round, structureless disc

27", 113x-172x, UHC + [OIII], NELM 7m0+
nothing visible without filter; UHC and [OIII] filter brings similar positive results; with large and mid size EP a 3:2 north-south elongated glow is popping in and out of view and not steadily visible with averted vision; faintness makes it difficult to define the exact size; difficult observation even under good transparency and large aperture
 

Abell 19

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 19 (PNG 200.7+08.4, PK 200+08.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
central star easy visible without filter; other faint stars around central star are popping in and out of view; with [OIII] filter a faint halo around central star appears; difficult to see but steadily visible with averted vision; confusion with the faint stars excluded

27", 293x, [OIII] NELM 7m0+
central star bright and easy with direct vision even through searching eyepiece; not visible without filter, even with middle EP; dangerous faint stars around central star; with [OIII] filter a faint glow appears and gets steadily visible as a round, diffuse glow; the faint stars around the central star shines through the filter
sketch
 

Abell 20

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 20 (PNG 214.9+07.8, PK 214+07.1)


8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with 47x + [OIII] filter a very faint glow gets visible; located between a faint 14mag trapezium; with 80x easier observation and steadily visible with averted vision; round, structureless appearance

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m7
1' north of a small spiky triangle; visible even without any filter as a very faint glow; with [OIII] filter much easier and steadily visible with averted vision; round and structureless disc

27", 172x-293x, [OIII]/UHC, NELM 6m5+
easy visible even without filter near a faint star group; CZ is popping in and out of view with 172x and is steadily visible with 293x; moderate filter response to UHC and [OIII] filter; best view with 4mm EP (172x) and filter; round appearance with good defined edges and darker to its middle; direct vision object
 

Abell 21

DSS Blue 15' x 15'

PN: Abell 21 (PNG 205.1+14.2, PK 205+14.1, Sh 2-274, YM 29, "Medusa Nebula")

2.8", 14x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
under very good transparency of a High Alpine location already visible with a 70mm Newton + [OIII] filter; flattened to the NW side and steadily visible with averted vision

4", 31x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
with [OIII] filter SW-NE elongated disc with 14x; 31x shows a faint crescent shape

4" Binocular Telescope, 23x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
visible even without filter only 0,5 SE of the faint OC NGC 2395; good and positive reaction to the [OIII] filter; object is still not bright but can be seen steadily with direct vision; more concentrated observations shows the shape of the nebula - the SE half is better defined, while the NW side runs out diffuse; the brightest round and laminar peak is visible at the eastern end; another smaller and east-west elongated peak is visible at the southern end

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
the famous Medusanebula is visible as a large, crescent-shaped nebula; the glow is open to the west with brighter condensations to the SW and NE; these condensations are attached by difficult to see arcs; best view with 4mm EP and [OIII] filter; but already visible without filter
sketch
 

Abell 22

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 22 (PNG 215.6+11.1, PK 215+11.1, K 1-11)

20", 155x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
visible as a faint 3:2 SW-NE elongated disk SW of a 13mag star; difficult to see but steadily visible with averted vision; faint knots/shells at the SW and NE end
sketch

27", 172x-293x, UHC/[OIII], NELM 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; UHC and [OIII] shows similar positive response; with filter and 172x the SW part is the first visible detail and could be seen steadily with averted vision; with 293x the NE part is also visible but seems to be smaller with somewhat easier surface brightness; sits directly NW of a disturbing 13mag star
 

Abell 23

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 23 (PNG 249.3-05.4, PK 249-05.1, ESO 368-10)

12", 94x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+ (Namibia, 23,2S)

only suspected; no sure observation - negative result; difficult star field

16", 100x-129x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+ (Germany, 47,7N)
PN gets only 5 minutes of observing window because of its low declination (-35 DEC) from the location (47,7N); during this short observing time definitely not visible

17", 140x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+ (Namibia, 23,2S)
with 17" aperture the faint 15mag star directly SW of the PN is visible through the filter; NE of the star a faint 1' large round glow is popping out and with carefully observation the glow is steadily visible with averted vision
 

Abell 24

DSS Red 10' x 10'

PN: Abell 24 (PNG 217.1+14.7, PK 217+14.1)

4" Binocular Telescope, 23x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
not visible or suspected

8", 47x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
only suspected; not steadily visible, no sure observation - negative result

20", 66x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
very faint round disc; hardly noticeable only with maximum EP; sure observation but not steadily visible with averted vision; diffuse edges and not sharply defined; structureless

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; similar positive response to UHC and [OIII] filter; with maximum EP and filter a large, diffuse glow can be seen steadily with averted vision; its middle seems to be somewhat darker; west shell overall easier to see, wider and a little bit bent; east shell shorter, thinner, but with higher surface brightness; no peaks within the shells
sketch
 

Abell 25

DSS Blue 7' x 7'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 25 (PNG 224.3+15.3, PK 224+15.1, K 1-13)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
very faint PN; only SE part is popping in and out of view; difficult but sure positive observation

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
with maximum EP and [OIII] filter the PN is visible as a round, filled glow without any shell structure; with 4mm EP the PN in overall looks much fainter but shows the shell structure; SE shell a little bit easier to see; between shells PN seems to be filled with nebula; [OIII] filter shows a little bit better positive reaction than the UHC filter
sketch
 

Abell 26

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 26 (PNG 250.3+00.1, PK 250+11.1, ESO 369-5)

12", 150x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+ (Namibia, 23,2S)
with averted vision, PN is visible as a faint, small and round glow

16", 100x-129x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+ (Germany, 47,7N)
PN gets only 5 minutes of observing window because of its low declination (-33 DEC) from the location (47,7N); during this short observing time definitely not visible
 

Abell 27

DSS Red 5' x 5

PN: Abell 27 (PNG 252.6+04.4, PK 252+04.1, K 1-1, ESO 431-14)

12", 63x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+ (Namibia, 23,2S)
without an exact searching map a very faint glow pops in and out of view several times; the follow-up confirmed the noted position and so the positive observation

16", 100x-129x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+ (Germany, 47,7N)
PN gets only a few minutes of observing time because of its low declination (-32 DEC) from the given location (47,7N); during this short observing time the visibility of the PN could only be suspected; uncertain and so negative observation
 

Abell 28

DSS Red 10' x 10'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 28 (PNG 158.8+37.1, PK 158+37.1)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
not visible

27", 113x - 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
easier than it sounds; PN is visible as a very faint, round and diffuse glow; the glow is not steadily visible but by moving the telescope, the position is clear to define
 

Abell 29

DSS Red 10' x 10'

PN: Abell 29 (PNG 244.5+12.5, PK 244+12.1, ESO 563-9)

16", 69x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
very difficult PN; only visible with maximum EP and [OIII] filter; together with an co-observer we both saw a very faint glow somewhat SW of the real position; glow was not steadily visible with averted vision; round appearance without clearly defined edges; the follow-up shows that we saw only the SW part of the ring structure
sketch

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
only visible with maximum EP and [OIII] filter; both shells steadily and simultaneous visible with averted vision; NE shell wider, longer and brighter at the north end (because of washed out stars); SW shell somewhat shorter and straight in shape
 

Abell 30

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 30 (PNG 208.5+33.2, PK 208+33.1)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
faint PN but steadily visible with averted vision as a mid size glow without good defined edges; only visible with maximum EP; brighter 14mag central star visible
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+, Seeing IV
with 4mm EP + [OIII] filter the PN disk itself is steadily visible with averted vision; round with sharply defined edges; around 14mag central star a prominent but small and structureless ~15" halo is visible; PN and halo not visible without filter
 

Abell 31

DSS Blue 25' x 25'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 31 (PNG 219.1+31.2, PK 219+31.1, Sh 2-290)

4" Binocular Telescope, 23x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with [OIII] filter easy visible as a round and diffuse glow around the 10mag bright GSC 8112166; the 10' large glow seems to be a little bit brighter towards the SW edge but is to small for the given aperture to resolve more structure; the whole glow is steadily visible with averted vision

8", 31x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
large and easy visible glow with direct vision and [OIII] filter; positioned along an parallelogram of 10mag stars; brightest part seems to be east of the SE star of the parallelogram and is elongated 1:2 north-south; west following another fainter part is visible; the western part runs out very diffuse; all in all the whole nebula is around 14' large

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
bright glow with maximum EP and [OIII] filter; positioned around a 10mag star; nebula shows some structures - brightest part to the west to SW of the mentioned star; very diffuse edges; at the NE a second smaller part is visible
sketch

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
visible even without filter as a faint glow around a 10mag star; positive and good response to [OIII] filter, only moderate response to UHC filter and no response to H filter; with maximum EP (and field) plus [OIII] filter the whole glow shows a mottled structure, broken with some difficult to locate dark lanes; brightest part is positioned directly SW of the star; another part is positioned NE and moves along the star; a third part is positioned at the SE end of the PN; the photographic striking Hα shell at the SE side is not visible with all filter combination
 

Abell 32
plate fault
 
Abell 33

DSS Blue 10' x 10'

PN: Abell 33 (PNG 238.0+34.8, PK 238+34.1)


4" Binocular Telescope, 23x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with [OIII] filter a glow becomes immediately visible directly NE of the 7mag bright HD 83535; after more focused observation the PN shows the typically exactly round appearance with its around 4' size; steadily visible with averted vision

8", 31x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with 31x (EP 6,5mm) and [OIII] filter a glow becomes visible directly NE of a 7mag star, which looks like a ghost or reflex of a star; but the offset position and the missing of that ghost around other stars makes it clear, that the glow has to be the PN; still visible with averted vision with higher power (80x = EP 2,5mm); exactly round disc with 4' diameter and good defined edges; at the NW border a faint 12mag star shines through the filter; 2' north another 12mag star is visible; the central star is not visible

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
even visible without any filter; with [OIII] filter and 129x a large, round glow becomes steadily visible even with direct vision; no structure within the sharply defined disc
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
round glow visible even without any filter; middle positioned double star (with central star component) visible with averted vision with 172x; higher power cannot split the double star; very good response to the [OIII] filter; PN looks round, sharply defined and structureless filled; thin and brighter edge is not visible separately through the telescope and shows the same brightness than the filling

27", 976x, fst 6m5+
under good seeing, the direct visible central star (both components ~16bmag) seems to be slightly north-south elongated; a clear separation (~1,8") is not visible
 

Abell 34

DSS Blue 10' x 10'

PN: Abell 34 (PNG 248.7+29.5, PK 248+29.1)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
very faint round glow only visible with maximum EP and [OIII] filter; edges not sharply defined; ring structure not visible

16", 75x - 180x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
best view with higher EP, with lower EP than 3mm the PN is not visible any more; at 75x a 2:3 north-south elongated glow becomes visible and shows a better defined western side without showing the ring structure; without filter and with higher magnification the faint galaxy PGC 3081651 pops in and out of view at the western edge as a very faint glow
sketch

27", 113x-419x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
not visible without filter; with higher magnification a close double star at the center can be resolved (the fainter SE component is the real central star); the brighter galaxy PGC 3081651 at the western edge is steadily visible with direct vision as a 1:2 elongated glow; 1,6' south another fainter galaxy just outside the edge is steadily visible with averted vision as a small and round glow; PN itself shows good response to an [OIII] filter; the exactly round disc with structureless filling is steadily visible with averted vision; at the NE end the rim is somewhat better defined and visible as a short shell segment; other brighter rim sections are not visible
 

Abell 35

DSS Blue 15' x 15'
(contrast enhanced)

Possible PN/Strmgren Sphere: Abell 35 (PNG 303.6+40.0, Sh 2-313, LW Hya)


8", 47x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] filter easy and direct vision glow around bright central star; north and east two other faint stars at the edge of the PN are visible through the filter; glow seems to be round with diffuse edges; no other details visible

16", 51x-100x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
PN visible as a faint and mid size glow around 9,5mag central star LW Hyd; with [OIII] filter the 5'-6' large glow appears much smaller than photographically (which also images the outer red parts); somewhat brighter east-west elongated bar at the southern edge which seems to be cut of to the south; overlooked 16,7bmag galaxy ESO 507-38 (4,7' north of the central star)
sketch

27", 113x, NELM 6m5+
even visible without a filter as a diffuse, 10' large glow around the bright central star; the H filter slightly improves the sighting, without showing any clear structure; the UHC filter again improves the visibility and changes the illumination of the glow by showing an east-west elongated edge at the southern end; best results are given with the [OIII] filter - the edge at the south is now easy to see and the "bow shock" structure is clearly indicated by showing a dark structure reaching from the east directly north of a 11mag star to the central star, but the edges of the structure itself are not clearly blanked out
 

Abell 36

DSS Blue 10' x 10'

PN: Abell 36 (PNG 318.4+41.4, PK 318+41.1, ESO 577-24)

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+

nothing visible without filter; with [OIII] filter and maximum EP a brighter glow is steadily visible with averted vision around the bright central star; with 47x the glow looks 1:2 north south elongated; with 80x the southern part is somewhat better defined

16", 51x-100x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
easy Abell PN; steadily visible with direct vision, maximum EP and [OIII] filter; 2:3 north-south elongated disc around 11,8mag central star; with higher magnification the southern part looks much brighter and round; otherwise structureless

16", 75x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
easy PN and even visible without filter in the searching eyepiece as a faint glow around bright central star; with 75x (5,3mm EP) and [OIII] filter best view; 2:3 east-west elongated disc which is shifted to the south; flat northern side against round southern part; south of the central star a faint dark hole is popping in and out of view;, brightest part to the west following with a fainter part to the SE; starting from the NW edge, a very faint outer part runs out to the north; overlooked galaxy PGC 159359 (5,9' SW of the central star)
sketch
 

Abell 37

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 37 (IC 972,
PNG 326.6+42.2 / PNG 326.7+42.2, PK 326+42.1)

8", 114x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
visible as a tiny disc with averted vision even without filter; from 80x the glow started to be laminar; the round glow shows good defined edges and filling in the middle; only a small positive filter reaction; with [OIII] filter the PN is steadily visible with direct vision; no central star or ring structure visible

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
small planetary; best view with 129x (EP 3mm); with [OIII] easy and steadily visible with averted vision; disappears with lower EP than 3mm; structureless disc shows no central star

20", 450x, UHC, NELM 7m0+ (La Palma, 28,7N)
visible as a bright round glow with good defined edges without filter; the central star is not visible; only moderate reaction to [OIII] filter; best view with UHC filter; ring shows a small bend at the eastern edge with a somewhat brighter part at the SE; ring seems to be open to the north; west edge is also better defined without showing a bend; stellar spot at the NW edge (probable the 17mag background star)
sketch
 

Abell 38

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 38 (
PNG 346.9+12.4, PK 346+12.1, K 1-3, ESO 452-1)

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 7m5 (Austria, 46,9N)
extremely faint PN; the roughly round glow is positioned directly south of an 11mag star; difficult to figure out the exactly size or structure; the two 14mag neighbour stars are visible trough the [OIII] filter
sketch

28", 120x, [OIII], NELM 7m5+ (Namibia, 23,2S)
difficult to observe even under the best conditions (Gamsberg/Namibia) and large aperture - much more difficult then the red POSS plate indicates; with averted vision and [OIII] filter a very faint 3:2 east-west elongated glow is steadily visible with averted vision; but no sign of the ring structure or the brighter rims; PN is not visible without filter and only suspected with UHC filter
 

Abell 39

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 39 (PNG 047.0+42.4, PK 047+42.1)

4", 31x, [OIII], NELM 6m2
extremely difficult to observe under average transparency and 4" aperture; PN is popping in and out of view with 3,5mm EP and [OIII] filter as a very faint glow which is not steadily visible even with averted vision; positive to classify observation because of the right position of the glow; the central star is not visible without filter

4" Binocular Telescope, 23x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
now under better transparency of a Pre-Alpine location; but nothing visible without filter; with 4,3mm EP and [OIII] filter a round glow is steadily visible with averted vision; with 55x the EP is to small to still show the PN

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with [OIII] filter the PN is steadily visible with averted vision as a large, round and structureless disc

20", 121x, [OIII], NELM 6m3
with maximum EP the PN is visible even without any filter as a faint round glow; with 4mm EP and [OIII] filter the disc becomes bright and is easily visible with direct vision; somewhat darker to its middle without showing the thin rim; the central star is easily visible without filter
sketch

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
PN even visible without a filter as a faint round glow (with 4mm and 6mm EP); with [OIII] filter the PN becomes an easy target and is steadily visible with direct vision; best view with 172x (EP 4mm); the PN looks exactly round with good defined edges; the edge itself is visible as a thin and segmented rim; the brightest segment is located in the east, following with smaller segments in the NW and in the south; the central star is easily visible without a filter, but also shines trough the [OIII] filter; the galaxy within the PN not attempted
 

Abell 40

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 40 (PNG 359.1+15.1, PK 359+15.1, ESO 586-3)

12", 150x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+ (Namibia, 23,2S)
the PN is steadily visible with averted vision as a round and clearly laminar glow; a faint star is visible close to the west and disappears with [OIII] filter so that a confusion with the PN can excluded

16", [OIII], NELM 6m4 (Germany, 49,7N)
not visible
 

Abell 41

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 41 (PNG 009.6+10.5, PK 009+10.1, Hen 2-236, Sa 2-205)

16", 225x, UHC, NELM 6m4
faint Abell PN contrariness to the bright appearance on the blue and red POSS photoplates; the PN is not visible without a filter; with [OIII] filter and from 129x up a small, faint and diffuse glow is popping in and out of view; the best view is with 225x and UHC filter; with this combination a small, round and not sharply defined glow is difficult but steadily visible with averted vision
sketch

27", 419x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with higher magnification the central star is steadily visible with averted vision; a faint glow around the central star is also visible even without a filter; with [OIII] filter the central star disappears and the nebula of the PN pops out clearly; this glow is visible with direct vision as a small, round nebula with good defined edges but without showing the characterizing shell structure
 

Abell 42

DSS Blue 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 42 (PNG 016.0+13.5, PK 016+13.1)

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 7m5

very faint Abell PN; barely visible under nearly perfect conditions of an High Alpine location; only visible with 4mm EP as a round glow, laminar glow which is not steadily visible and which is only popping in and out of view with averted vision; two 14mag stars are visible through the [OIII] filter just west and east of the PN
sketch

20", [OIII], NELM 6m3
not visible

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
without filter and with magnifications of 113x and 172x a very faint glow is suspected; the [OIII] filter let the glow being visible more clearly but without a steady sighting; the very faint smudge seems to be round without any more structure; the UHC filter does not work
 

Abell 43

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 43 (PNG 036.0+17.6, PK 036+17.1)


20", 155x, [OIII], NELM 6m3
only visible with [OIII] filter as a round glow; the PN is steadily visible with averted vision; some structure is suspected, which is not clearly definable; without a filter three stars are visible within the PN
sketch

27", 293x, UHC, NELM 6m0+
under bad transparency even visible without filter in the searching eyepiece (113x); three stars visible within the disc; the central star is the brightest one, the south following star is the faintest and only visible with difficulties; the [OIII] filter shows only little improvement; the UHC filter is the best solution to observe the PN which is visible as a round glow with good defined edges; suggested ring structure with a brighter fragment to the NW; no closed ring structure or inner structure visible
 

Abell 44

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 44 (PNG 015.6-03.0, PK 015-03.1)

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
from 129x up and [OIII] filter the PN is detectable as a small but laminar glow; best view with 225x and [OIII] filter, which shows a round and diffuse glow steadily with averted vision; a faint 12,5mag star at the SE edge shines through the filter
sketch

27", 293x, [OIII]/UHC, NELM 6m5+
relative small PN is still not visible in the searching eyepiece (113x); with 293x a faint glow east of a 12,5mag star is popping in and out of view even without a filter;  similar positive reactions with [OIII] and UHC filter; with these filters the PN becomes easily and steadily visible as a round glow with god defined edges
 

Abell 45

DSS Red 10' x 10'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 45 (PNG 020.2-00.6 / PNG 020.0-00.6, PK 020-00.1)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
extremely difficult PN; positioned 3' NW of the 12,5mag star GSC 56983731; a 3'x2' east-west elongated glow is only popping in and out of view without a clear appearance; because of this I classify the observation as uncertain

27", 113x, [OIII], NPB, H, NELM 7m0+
only suspected as a extremely faint glow by moving the telescope, but without showing an defined size or position; no brighter regions or edges visible as well; also no clear sighting when the telescope stands still; only suspected with [OIII] filter, NPB or H filter shows no positive reaction, uncertain observation even nearly perfect transparency
 

Abell 46

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 46 (PNG 055.4+16.0, PK 055+16.1)

20", 206x, [OIII], NELM 6m6
faint glow around bright central star even visible without filter in the searching eyepiece; easier with [OIII] filter and then steadily visible with averted vision; with 206x the PN shows a round and 1,5'large appearance with diffuse edges

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
even under bad transparency a faint glow is visible without filter around the direct visible central star; good [OIII] filter reaction; through the filter the PN and the central star is easy visible with direct vision; round PN shows somewhat diffuse edges
sketch
 

Abell 47

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 47 (PNG 030.8+03.4, PK 030+03.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
very difficult object even under nearly perfect transparency; the object is only popping in and out of view
repeatedly at the right position without being steadily visible with averted vision; very faint glow seems to be round wit diffuse edges

27", 293x, NPB, NELM 7m+
region empty of stars and without any near indication for the observation; after concentrated observation of the field a very faint and small glow pops in and out of view
repeatedly at the right position without being steadily visible with averted vision with NPB filter; uncertain observation even under nearly perfect transparency
 

Abell 48

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 48 (PNG 029.0+00.4, PK 029+00.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
difficult Abell PN; only popping in and out of view and not steadily visible; round appearance without any other details like the hard defined edges

16", 150x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
difficult PN even under very good transparency of an High Alpine location; PN is popping in and out of view safely and
repeatedly without a steady sighting; round and small appearance; co-observer confirms observation
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
under bad transparency not visible without filter; with UHC filter a very faint glow is suspected with uncertainty; with [OIII] filter the PN is popping in and out of view and is visible
repeatedly for several seconds each with certainty; diffuse appearance without good defined edges; 17mag stars within the nebula not visible without filter
 

Abell 49

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 49 (PNG 027.3-03.4, PK 027-03.1)


16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 7m3
very faint Abell PN which is popping in and out of view with certainty but without a steady sighting; structureless and somewhat diffuse
sketch

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
not visible without filter; with [OIII] easy to detect and visible even with direct vision; structureless round and diffuse appearance; nice star field around with lots of double stars and tight star groups
 

Abell 50

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 50 (NGC 6742,
PNG 078.5+18.7, PK 078+18.1)

4", 55x, UHC, NELM 6m5+
with 55x visible even without filter as a faint and small glow; the UHC filter helps so that the PN is visible steadily with averted vision as a small but laminar glow

16", 51x-450x, [OIII], NELM 6m4
bright sighting and easy visible without filter; central star is not visible; with [OIII] filter PN shows a round, sharply defined and filled appearance

27", 586x, without filter, NELM 7m0+
bright sighting even without filter and low magnification; filter doesn't help much and shows less positive reaction; at the western edge a faint star is visible; the more fainter central star (~19mag) is not visible; round PN shows a slightly ring structure; the fillings seems to be somewhat mottled without showing the cloudy inner structure with certainty; a dark structure directly south and most clearly to the SE of the centre is visible most likely
sketch
 

Abell 51

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 51 (
PNG 017.6-10.2, PK 017-10.1, ESO 592-7)

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
nothing visible or suspected with and without filter under several magnifications

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m3
with [OIII] filter the PN is visible with direct vision as a large and round disc with sharply defined edges; the ring structure is not visible
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
steadily visible with averted vision in the searching eyepiece even without any filter; from 293x up the central star is visible with direct vision; best combination results out of the [OIII] filter and 172x (4mm EP); PN is now a direct vision object and shows a exactly round appearance with good defined edges; with 293x the ring structure becomes visible; the UHC filter gives a poorer reaction
 

Abell 52

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 52 (
PNG 050.4+05.2, PK 050+05.1)

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 6m7
very difficult Abell PN; after intensive and concentrated observation, the PN is only popping in and out of view as an extremely faint glow; the follow-up shows the positive observation character although at the limit of perception

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
not visible without filter; with [OIII] filter a round disc with sharply defined edges is steadily visible with averted vision; NE part seems to be somewhat brighter and better defined; PN is even visible with smaller EP (2,3mm) and 293x
 

Abell 53

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 53 (
PNG 040.3-00.4, PK 040-00.1)

8", 114x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
higher magnification is needed for the clear separation from the near 13mag star (1,6' north); while the star itself is visible trough the filter the PN is definitely not visible or suspected

14", 200x, [OIII], NELM 7m3
even under very good transparency, the PN is only popping in and out of view as a faint, round disc which is not steadily visible; certain positive observation because of the safe and repeated popping

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
with averted vision, the PN is visible even without filter as a round glow with good defined edges; low positive response to [OIII] filter and no response to H filter; with [OIII] filter the ring structure becomes visible but shows inner filling; the ring structured PN as a whole is visible with direct vision
sketch
 

Abell 54

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 54 (
PNG 055.3+06.6, PK 055+06.1)

16", [OIII], NELM 7m0+
not visible

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
first sight is a compact star group 1,2 NW, which is also visible through the filter and shows three stars; the PN itself is visible immediately and steadily with averted vision; round and diffuse appearance with 1' diameter
 

Abell 55

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 55 (
PNG 033.0-05.3, PK 033-05.1)

8", 80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
without filter a faint glow is suspected at the position of the PN; with [OIII] filter the glow becomes a clear sighting and is steadily visible with averted vision; homogenous illuminated disc with diffuse edges

16", 180x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
easy Abell PN which is suspected as a faint glow even without a filter; with [OIII] filter the PN becomes a direct vision object; the structureless disc shows a round and homogenous illumination
sketch

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
under moderate transparency and 113x the PN is suspected even without a filter as a small and faint glow, bordered by some fainter stars; with 172x the stars becomes separated and resolved and shows a glow inside which is steadily visible with averted vision; very good filter reaction; with [OIII] filter the PN becomes visible with direct vision between magnifications of 172x - 293x; round appearance with diffuse edges and somewhat brighter to its centre
 

Abell 56

DSS Red 7' x 7'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 56 (
PNG 037.9-03.4, PK 037-03.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
extremely difficult Abell PN at the limit of perception; together with an co-observer we both saw a large and extremely faint glow, unable to define the exact position and size; the arches are not separately visible

27", 122x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
very difficult Abell PN; with an EP of 5,6mm a very faint 3' large round disc becomes visible with a somewhat darker centre; the brightest part of this large glow is positioned 1,5 SW of the 11,2mag GSC 4672006; a second arch fragment is suspected NW at the opposite side; both arch positions are framed of faint and close star groups which makes the observation difficult and finally uncertain
 

Abell 57

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 57 (
PNG 058.6+06.1, PK 058+06.1)

8", 80x-114x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with around 0,5' diameter untypically small for an Abell PN which needs higher magnification (47x to small for verification) and for small apertures unfavorable EP's; with filter a very faint glow pops in and out of view; not steadily but repeatedly visible for several seconds each; somewhat concentrated to its middle with diffuse edges; difficult observation for 8" aperture but clearly positive sighting

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
with [OIII] filter the PN is steadily visible with averted vision; round and diffuse appearance with slightly brighter middle; looks like a faint globular cluster
sketch

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
nice star field around PN; under soso transparency already suspected without filter between 172x and 293x; with 419x the faint glow dissapears and the faint 17,5gmag central star is popping in and out of view with certainty; positive [OIII] filter reaction which shows the PN as an easy and direct vision object with round, diffuse and somewhat concentrated appearance; remarcable small diameter for an Abell PN
 

Abell 58

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 58 (
PNG 037.5-05.1, PK 037-05.1, V605 Aql = Nova Aql 1919)

16", [OIII], NELM 7m0+
not visible

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
very difficult and faint PN; clear and positive identification with certainty; object is positioned around 1' NW of a faint parallelogram of 13mag stars; compact appearance but clearly laminar disc with 172x; with estimated 0,5' diameter smaller than on deep images

Abell 59

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 59 (
PNG 053.3+03.0, PK 053+03.1)

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 6m7
very faint PN with disturbing 6,5mag star only 3' NE; with [OIII] filter the PN is popping in and out of view and is repeatedly visible for several seconds each; contrary to the (red) POSS plates the PN shows a round appearance with somewhat brighter middle

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
under average transparency still a very difficult object even with 27" aperture; only visible with large EP (6,1mm) and [OIII] filter as a small glow at the position of the brightest northern arc; only popping in and out of view for seconds each and not steadily visible with averted vision; not visible with smaller (4mm) EP; disturbing star directly NE left on the field when using low magnifications

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
under very good transparency of a High Alpine location still difficult but certain observation; already visible with maximum EP (6,1mm) as a very faint glow with a focus area at the northern tip; best view and steadily visible with averted vision with 4mm EP (172x); round glow with better defined northern edge; the NPB filter gives a poorer reaction than the [OIII] filter
 

Abell 60

DSS Red 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 60 (
PNG 025.0-11.6, PK 025-11.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
medium sized Abell PN; steadily visible with averted vision with middle EP (3,1mm) and [OIII] filter; somewhat structured filling which is maybe explained by the faint foreground stars

27", 113x-293x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with 172x visible even without a filter; some very faint stars are visible within the PN area; directly east of the PN a tight north-south elongated chain of faint stars becomes visible which could be confuse with the real PN with the use of smaller apertures; with [OIII] filter the PN becomes an easy and direct vision object; round and structureless appearance; the eastern star group is visible even trough the filter, the fainter stars within the PN area almost disappears
 

Abell 61

DSS Blue 7' x 7'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 61 (
PNG 077.6+14.7, PK 077+14.1)

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+

with 4mm EP a faint glow can be detected 5' north of four 11mag stars; the small but clearly laminar glow is steadily visible with averted vision; a higher magnification of 80x brings out the position and size much better, althrough the glow itself is somewhat fainter to see; exactly round appearance with a 4' diameter

16", 75x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
nice Abell PN in rich star field; best view with 75x (EP 5,3mm) and [OIII] filter; the PN is steadily visible with averted vision, but could not detected without a filter; the 3' glow shows an exactly round appearance with good defined edges, especially at the western side
sketch

20", 62-155x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
typical Abell PN; not visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter brings out a large, perfectly circular planetary wich is steadily visible even with direct vision; with somewhat higher magnification the NW-edge seems to be a little bit better defined

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
the PN is visible even without a filter as a very faint glow; the [OIII] filter brings out a prominent, exactly round glow with internal filling; the PN shows good defined edges with a somewhat brighter NW section; without a filter and a magnification of 586x the central star is visible with averted vision
 

Abell 62

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 62 (
PNG 047.1-04.2, PK 047-04.1)

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 7m3
even visible in the searching eyepiece and [OIII] filter as a faint glow around a star group; with 4mm EP the 2:3 east-west elongated glow shows a better defined southern edge and runs out diffuse to the north; the faint glow is steadily visible with averted vision

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
even visible in the searching eyepiece without a filter; the [OIII] filter brings out a direct vision object with 113x and 172x; exactly round appearance with good defined edges; the SW side seems to be a little bit brighter, but the SE side is better defined against the background because of the missing foreground stars; difficult star field with dangerous star chains next to the PN edges
sketch
 

Abell 63

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 63 (
PNG 053.8-03.0, PK 053-03.1, V UU Sge)

16", 180x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
with [OIII] filter, a small but laminar glow becomes visible with averted vision and 180x; a faint 13mag star at the western edge is visible through the [OIII] filter
sketch

27", 293x, UHC; NELM 6m5+
not visible in the searching eyepiece and without a filter with; with a magnification of 293x a faint glow is popping in and out of view without a filter, which is positioned within a small and even resolvable square star group; the 15mag central star is barely visible with direct vision; nearly no positive reaction to the [OIII] filter; the UHC filter works much better and shows a small, round and diffuse glow with averted vision; the central star is still visible through the filter
 

Abell 64

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

Galaxy: PGC 63630 (CGCG 397-005)

10", without filter, NELM 7m1
very faint but steadily visible with averted vision; galaxy shows a round and diffuse appearance

14", without filter, NELM 7m1
even with only 15mag showy glow; galaxy shows no elongation and presents a round and diffuse appearance; a faint star is popping in and out of view near the center

16", 225x, without filter, NELM 7m0
Abell 64 is visible as a prominent glow with an indicated 1:2 elongation; closely north of the center a faint star is popping in and out of view; galaxy disappears with a [OIII] filter

27", 488x, without filter, NELM 7m0+
the galaxy is already visible with low power as a direct vision glow; higher magnifications shows several stellar to diffuse spots within the galaxy halo; brightest knot is positioned at the northern tip; directly south of the spot another stellar glow is visible - both forms a double system; a third spot is visible just south of the center; much fainter knots are popping in and out of view at the western and eastern edge
sketch
 

Abell 65

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 65 (
PNG 017.3-21.9, PK 017-21.1, Sh 2-52, ESO 526-3, PGC 63654, MCG-04-56-001)

8", 47x-80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+

nice and interesting star field around the Abell PN without a filter; while the central star is not visible, both attached 13mag stars are easy visible with 80x; with [OIII] filter and 47x a faint 1:2 SE-NW glow is steadily visible between both 13mag stars with averted vision; with 80x the elongation of the glow is visible much easier; both magnifications (47x + 80x) shows the PN easily and steadily with averted vision

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
easy visible with [OIII] filter as an oval shaped glow with diffuse edges; the central bar seems to be somewhat brighter along the direction of the main elongation
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
under moderate transparency even visible without filter with the searching eyepiece directly SW of a 13mag star; with 172x the central star visible with averted vision and the glow of the PN is visible with direct vision; good and positive filter reaction; the [OIII] filter shows a bright, 1:2 SE-NW glow with brighter section to the SE

27", 172x - 293x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
under very good transparency the Abell PN is a direct vision object even without a filter and shows a prominent 1:2 elongation; good [OIII] filter reaction; this filter brings out three brighter sections; the whole SE section is clearly the brightest part of the PN; the also brighter NW end shows two knots at its relative corner; the fainter outer halo arc can only be suspected, best pop with 293x as a peak at the middle of the long NE side
 

Abell 66

DSS Blue 7' x 7'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 66 (
PNG 019.8-23.7, PK 019-23.1, ESO 595-4)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
very faint Abell PN which is only visible with maximum EP and [OIII] filter; shows a round appearance with a 4' diameter; two 14mag stars are visible through the [OIII] filter; the ring structure is not resolvable
sketch

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
while moving the telescope, a faint glow is suspected even without a filter in the searching eyepiece; good filter reaction; the [OIII] filter brings out a round and filled glow with brighter shells to the eastern and western edge; both shells are "bone-like" connected trough the center
 

Abell 67

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 67 (
PNG 043.5-13.4, PK 043-13.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
not visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter brings out a medium sized round and somewhat diffuse disc; steadily visible with averted vision

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
the PN is suspected even without a filter and under bad transparency as a very faint, large glow; the UHC gives a positive reaction - now the PN is barely visible with averted vision; the [OIII] filter is even better and brings out a large and diffuse glow, which is steadily visible with averted vision; at the limit of perceptions a constriction into two NE-SW halves is popping in and out of view
 

Abell 68

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 68 (
PNG 060.0-04.3, PK 060-04.1)

16", [OIII], NELM 6m2
the PN is positioned only 1 south of Messier 27; under moderate transparency and without an exact map to find not visible with and without a filter

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
under good transparency and an exact map now visible with mid sized EP and [OIII] filter as a faint, small, diffuse and round glow; sits directly east of a 15mag double star
sketch

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
nothing visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter turns the object to an easy target; with 6,1mm EP (113x) steadily visible with averted vision as round glow; with 4mm EP (172x) even visible with direct vision; all in all the PN shows a diffuse appearance without sharp edges
 

Abell 69

DSS Red 7' x 7'

PN: Abell 69 (
PNG 076.3+01.1, PK 076+01.1)

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
extremely difficult PN which needs an exact map to find; under very good transparency the PN is popping in and out of view with higher magnification and [OIII] filter; it is positioned in western extension from a faint eastern coming star chain; after intensive observation the PN is again visible for 1-2 seconds with averted vision as a small and very faint glow; no confusion with a 16mag star directly SE because the star is not visible even without a filter

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
extremely difficult Abell, even with large aperture and good transparency; without a filter the 16mag SE positioned star is steadily visible with averted vision; with Astronomik [OIII] filter a very faint glow at the exact position of the PN is barely visible with averted vision; problematically this glow could also be the 16mag star; the Lumicon [OIII] filter shows noticeable less stars, but the glow remains at the exact position; because of that I classify the observation as uncertain but generally positive
 

Abell 70

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 70 (
PNG 038.1-25.4, PK 038-25.1)

8", 80x-229x, NELM 6m5+
with 80x and without any filter a small and nearly stellar glow is popping in and out of view with averted vision; the glow is visible up to 160x as a somewhat laminar but still very small surface without any detail to clearly associate it to the galaxy; best and more easy view is with [OIII] filter and 114x, where a small round glow is steadily visible with averted vision; this remaining small disc is visible up to 229x as a filled surface with good defined edges

16", 360x, NELM 7m0
the PN disc is easy visible without a filter as a round, filled glow; the galaxy is only barely visible as an elongated glow at the northern tip of the disc; the PN shows a positive reaction to the [OIII] filter, but the glow of the galaxy disappears; the ring structure of the PN disc is only barely visible with filter
sketch

20", NELM 7m2
without any filter, the PN disc and the 1:3 elongated galaxy at the northern tip becomes easily visible; the [OIII] filter shows a ring structure and a stellar peak at the southern tip of the ring is popping in and out of view 

24", NELM 7m0
without any filter, the galaxy is easy to detect from the also prominent PN disc; the 1:3 - 1:4 elongation of the galaxy is also easy to see; the central star is not visible; the [OIII] filter shows the prominent ring structure with nearly no filling inside the ring

27", 172x, NELM 7m0+
without any filter the PN is visible as a bright disc with direct vision; the round disc shows a ring structure with a somewhat darker middle; the galaxy is also visible with direct vision as a 1:3 elongated glow within the northern ring section; the quick and dirty observation with only 172x does not bring out the central star
 

Abell 71

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 71 (
PNG 084.9+04.4, PK 084+04.1, Sh 2-116)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
failed observation - confusion with a faint star group 10' north

20", 155x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
the Abell PN is only barely visible even with 20" aperture and good transparency; rich and dangerous star field which can fake a false PN glow; a middle EP of 3,2mm (155x) and [OIII] filter brings out a very faint, round glow within the rich star background of the Milky Way

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
rich star field; the PN is already visible through the searching eyepiece and [OIII] filter as a large glow within a star group; 4mm EP shows a slightly north-south elongated glow with better defined eastern edge; at the central position a 14mag star is popping through the filter, but is not the real central star
sketch
 

Abell 72

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 72 (
PNG 059.7-18.7, PK 059-18.1)

8", 80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
without any filter a compact, isosceles triangle of stars stands out, without showing the PN; with [OIII] filter and 47x a laminar glow becomes immediately visible with direct vision within the triangle; by increasing the magnification up to 80x, the size and position of the glow becomes visible much better; with that combination a 3:2 north-south elongated glow is steadily visible with averted vision

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m3
the PN is positioned directly east of an 8 mag star; barely visible even without any filter and low magnification (51x); with [OIII] filter and 129x a large, round and structureless glow becomes visible without showing clear edges; the southern following galaxy is not visible
sketch

27", 244x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
even visible without a filter as a large and round glow directly east of an 8.2mag star; with 293x the neighbour galaxy PGC 65491 is visible as a faint glow directly south of the PN; the [OIII] filter brings out a round and bright direct vision glow with better defined eastern and western edges; the easter side seems to be somewhat brighter; the 16mag central star is visible even through the filter
 

Abell 73

DSS Red 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 73 (
PNG 095.2+07.8, PK 095+07.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
under very good transparency, [OIII] filter and 3mm EP (129x) the PN is steadily visible with averted vision; the structureless, around 1' large glow doesn't show its ring structure

27", 244x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
the PN is even visible in the searching eyepiece as a round and relative small glow; the PN responded very sensitive to the right EP choice - best view here is an EP of 2,8mm (244x); in the first overview the PN shows an exactly round appearance with sharp defined edges and is barely visible with direct vision; a more concentrated observation shows the slightly darker middle; both shells at the eastern and western side are only suspected and not clearly visible
sketch
 

Abell 74

DSS Red 25' x 25'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 74 (
PNG 072.7-17.1, PK 072-17.1)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
with 13' diameter and low surface brightness difficult to observe even under nearly perfect transparency; with maximum EP and [OIII] a large disc becomes barely visible around an elongated, isosceles triangle of 12mag stars; a co-observe did see exactly the same glow with similar size and position; the follow-up confirms the sketched glow and so the positive observation; without filter the faint galaxy MCG+04-50-004 (15.0 bmag) within the PN disc is steadily visible with averted vision
sketch

27", 113x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
while moving the telescope through the field (without any filter), a faint glow is suspected - no clear observation because of the difficult star field around; with [OIII] filter and 6,1mm EP (113x, 0,7 field of view) a very faint glow around the brighter central star is clearly visible; this glow doesn't show a clear boundary or sharp edges, but the centre of the glow is roughly definable; despite the clear sighting, the glow is still very difficult to see and is not steadily visible with averted vision; the faint galaxy north of the central star is visible as a stellar spot without a filter
 

Abell 75

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 75 (NGC 7076,
PNG 101.8+08.7, PK 101+08.1)

4", NELM 6m5+
not visible

8", 160x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
with a (for a 8" telescope) high magnification of 160x, three 14mag stars in a north-south row are visible with a somewhat diffuse glow around the southernmost star, which could be explained by an unresolved 15mag star in the direct neighbourhood; with [OIII] filter all faint stars disappears and a faint glow remains; this structureless but good defined glow is steadily visible with averted vision

12", 167x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
during a quick and dirty observation with [OIII] filter, the PN is steadily visible with direct vision as a round disc with a better defined eastern edge

16", 330x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
with the low magnification of the searching eyepiece and [OIII] filter, the PN is visible as a small east-west elongated glow; higher magnifications brings out the structure of the PN; fist sight is a brighter section to the NE with two embedded stars shining trough the filter; the western side looks nearly cut-of; from the west, a dark wedge rises into the PN which looks fainter in the middle section
sketch

27", 113x-419x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
clearly visible even without any filter in the searching eyepiece; with a magnification of 419x, the 17mag central star is steadily visible with averted vision; best combination to see the PN disc is a relative high magnification of 293x - 419x and [OIII] filter; the oval disc of the PN is dominated by a brighter arc over the northern bounded 15mag stars, which bends to the south; another fainter arc sections following to the west; the PN looks like a "drop" with its tip to the west and a clearly darker centre
 

Abell 76

DSS Red 5' x 5'

Galaxy: PGC 85185 (2MASX J21300377-0248332)

14", 200x, NELM 7m0+
the galaxy is steadily visible with averted vision as a small, exactly round and filled disc; it shows no filter reaction and looks indeed similar to a Planetary Nebula

27", 586x, NELM 7m0+
the galaxy is visible with direct vision as a bright, exactly round disc with good defined edges; the ring structure is not visible, the disc is absolutely homogenous illuminated; the faint 18mag star? at the southern border of the galaxy is not visible
 

Abell 77

DSS Red 5' x 5'

HII region: Sharpless 2-128 (LBN 443)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
without any filter, the HII region is visible as a faint, small and more or less round glow around the central positioned 14mag star; with [OIII] filter the star disappears and the round and structureless glow with very diffuse edges remains; middle EP shows the best image, for higher magnification the nebula has a too low surface brightness

27", 293x, NPB, NELM 6m5+
the HII region is even visible without any filter as a prominent and direct vision round glow around the 14mag central positioned star; the glow shows a slightly positive response to a [OIII] and NPB filter, while a H filter clear up the glow; the best result shows the combination of the broadband NPB filter and middle EP (here 2,4mm); this combination shows an east-west elongated glow with diffuse edges and a slightly better defined northern side
sketch
 

Abell 78

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 78 (
PNG 081.2-14.9, PK 081-14.1)

8", 114x, [OIII] NELM 6m5+
the [OIII] filter shows a faint, round halo around the direct visible 13mag central star; this halo is not prominent around similar bright neighbourhood stars; difficult sighting with tendency to a positive observation

16", 180x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
not visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter brings out an 1:2 east-west elongated glow around the 13mag central star with a somewhat brighter north to NE side; the typical ring structure is not visible
sketch

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 7m1
not visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter shows a large, more or less round ring structure around the bright central star; the ring seems to be somewhat mottled without showing an exact structure

27", 172x-293x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
under soso transparency even visible without any filter with 172x as a faint halo around the bright 13mag central star; 419x shows a nice curved star chain directly NW of the PN, consisting of seven stars; this higher magnification shows a second and faint star sitting on the NW side of the bright central star; the [OIII] filter and a mid size EP (4mm, 172x) shows an 1:2 east-west elongated glow with two shells at the east and west side; the east shell is a little bit brighter; the fainter outer halo around the brighter main shell and at the southern side is not visible
 

Abell 79

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 79 (
PNG 102.9-02.3, PK 102-02.1, M 2-73)

4", 44x-88x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+

not visible with all tried magnification and filter combinations

8", 114x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
the unfiltered view shows a faint 14mag star at the south edge of the PN; with [OIII] filter the star disappears and a faint glow remains; this glow is popping in and out of view for several seconds each; difficult but clear positive observation for 8" aperture

16", 225x, [OIII], NELM 7m1
even visible without any filter; the [OIII] filter brings out an 1:2 elongated disc with a faint star at the southern edge

27", 419x, no filter, NELM 7m0+
even visible without any filter with medium magnifications up from around 200x as a faint glow; only slightly positive filter reactions; best and in total easier observation with [OIII] filter; more interesting view, also because of the rich and beautiful star field is still without a filter; first detail to see is a half-arch at the eastern side; west to NW following, a very faint 3:2 elongated but difficult to estimate in size glow is visible; the central star is steadily visible with averted vision
sketch
 

Abell 80

DSS Blue 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 80 (
PNG 102.8-05.0, PK 102-05.1)

16", 51x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
not visible

16", 100x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
under nearly perfect transparency of a High Alpine location, a very faint medium sized and round glow is popping in and out of view with 4mm EP and [OIII] filter; a co-observe did see exactly the same glow with similar size and position; a follow-up of both rough sketches confirms the positive observation
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
nothing visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter brings out a surprisingly easy and steadily visible large and round glow with good defined edges; the glow shows an absolutely homogenous illumination - both shells at the eastern and western side are not visible
 

Abell 81

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 81 (IC 1454,
PNG 117.5+18.9, PK 117+18.1)

4
", 55x, no filter, NELM 6m5+
visible even without any filter but higher magnification as a small and round glow 4' west of a 7mag stars; the UHC filter shows only a slightly positive improvement

8", 80x, no filter, NELM 6m5+
not resolvable in the searching eyepiece (31x); with 80x visible even without any filter; the PN shows only a slightly positive reaction to all tested filters; the glow is exactly round with good defined edges but without showing the ring structure

16", 51x-450x, [OIII], NELM 6m5
easy visible without a filter as a round glow; the central star is not visible; the [OIII] filter brings out a structureless circular disc with sharply defined edges and a faint double star at the NE border

16", 250x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
under very good transparency, the ring structure becomes visible by using an EP of 1,6mm (250x) and [OIII] filter; the relative small hole is still difficult by clearly and steadily visible with averted vision; the size of the hole is very similar to the thickness of the ring itself

27", 586x, no filter, NELM 6m5+
using no filter, the PN is visible as a bright, slightly asymmetrical and somewhat structured ring; the 18mag central star is barely visible as a peak within the ring
sketch

27", 293x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
bright and direct vision disc even in the unfiltered searching eyepiece; the [OIII] filter and 293x brings out an 5:4 east-west elongated ring; higher magnification indicates individual knots within the clearly structured ring; the outer halo is only suspected with 172x and [OIII] filter but could not clearly identified
 

Abell 82

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 82 (
PNG 114.0-04.6, PK 114-04.1)

8", 80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
without a filter, two faint 13mag - 14mag stars are visible at the position of the PN; the [OIII] filter and 80x (EP 2,5mm) brings out a noticeable round glow, which is barely visible even with direct vision; this diffuse glow is steadily and easy visible with averted vision

16", 150x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
the [OIII] filter shows a bright but compact glow with first signs of structure; the visibility of the structures and the PN at all reacts sensitive on the selection of the right EP, here 2,7mm; the EP shows a somewhat elongated disc with better defined NW side; two stars are superimposed within the disc, the northern 14.9vmag star presents the still scientific discussed central star
sketch

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
even under bad transparency barely visible without any filter directly north of a trapezoidal star group; the northernmost star is the still scientific discussed central star; UHC and [OIII] filters shows only a slightly positive reaction; the filter usage increases the size of the glow to the borders of the mentioned star group, even if the star group is still disturbing the estimation of the glow; the NW half shell is clearly brighter and better defined; the whole glow is easily and steadily visible with averted vision and presents an interesting morphology of the observed half shells and the superimposed stars
 

Abell 83

DSS Blue 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 83 (
PNG 113.6-06.9, PK 113-06.1)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m0
not visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter shows a faint, round glow, which is barely, but steadily visible with averted vision; a faint trapezoid of 15mag stars stands out NE of the PN

16", 180x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
not visible without a filter, even under very good transparency; the [OIII] filter brings out a round, 1' large glow, which is positioned 1,5' SW of a trapezoid of faint stars and which is steadily visible with averted vision
sketch

27", 173x, [OIII] + NPB, NELM 7m0+
not visible without a filter, even under very good transparency and larger aperture; a nice star field with many double stars and compact star groups sticks out in the area of the PN; the [OIII] and NPB Filter shows a faint, structureless and 3:2 east-west elongated disc, which is barely, but steadily visible with averted vision
 

Abell 84

DSS Blue 5' x 5'

PN: Abell 84 (
PNG 112.9-10.2, PK 112-10.1)

8", 80x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
not visible without a filter; the [OIII] filter shows a faint, round and structureless glow ; the star is barely visible trough the filter; the glow of the PN is steadily visible with averted vision

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 6m8
the PN is visible even without a filter as a very faint glow directly west of an 11mag star; the [OIII] filter shows a somewhat south-east elongation; a higher magnification brings out a dark lane dividing the PN from north to south into two shells; the eastern shell looks better defined and somewhat brighter
sketch

27", 172x-293x, [OIII], NELM 6m0+
the PN is visible even without a filter in the searching eyepiece as a faint glow directly east of an 11mag star; with 172x and still without a filter, the PN is easily and steadily visible with averted vision; the [OIII] filter changes the faint glow into a bright and direct vision nebula; this nebula shows faint extensions to the north and south and therefore looks somewhat elongated; the central part consists of two bone-like connected bright eastern and western shells
 

Abell 85

DSS Red 45' x 45'
(contrast enhanced)

SNR: CTB 1 (SNR G116.9+00.1)

16", 110x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
the 30' large Supernova Remnant (SNR) is positioned in the rich Milky Way region of Cassiopeia where prominent star chains interfere with the faint shells of the SNR; in consequence nothing is visible or suspected of the SNR, even under very good transparency

27", 113x-172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
extremely difficult star field with a high density of stars and dangerous star chains; best result is given with 4mm EP (172x) and [OIII] Filter; the brightest [OIII] section is positioned directly NE of the 9,5mag star GSC 42853095, which is again positioned at the eastern edge of the whole SNR bubble; the mentioned GSC star represents the southern end of a 5'x3' north-south elongated oval, which is visible only by its edges, especially the slightly better defined eastern edge; another similar large glow is suspected 7,5' south of the GSC star; other [OIII] illuminated sections of the SNR bubble are not visible
 

Abell 86

DSS Blue 5' x 5'
(contrast enhanced)

PN: Abell 86 (
PNG 118.7+08.2, PK 118+08.2)

16", 129x, [OIII], NELM 7m2
observation at the limit of perception, even under nearly perfect transparency of an High Alpine location; with 3mm EP and [OIII] filter, a very faint glow is popping in and out of view by moving the telescope; not steadily visible and only popping 20% of time
sketch

20", 128x, [OIII], NELM 6m5+
under good transparency of a low mountain range, the first thing to see is a faint 14mag star group directly east of the PN; the PN itself is popping in and out of view a very faint, round glow and is not steadily visible

27", 172x, [OIII], NELM 7m0+
difficult target, even with larger aperture and a High Alpine location; not visible without a filter; the combination of 4mm EP and [OIII] filter brings out a very faint, round glow, which is visible for only a few seconds each; the location and size is clearly verifiable although the glow is not steadily visible; with 2.4mm EP (293x) the glow disappears completely
 

DSS Bilder: Space Telescope Science Institute (California Institute of Technology, National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the Sloan Foundation, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, Eastman Kodak Corporation)

- Deutsche Version?